# Notes on Ehresmann’s connections -Part 2, Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket

In this note I shall introduce the Frölicher-Nijenhuis bracket – a powerful tool, especially when dealing with connections on fibre bundles.
Let be a fibre bundle. In the previous note we have seen that the connection form is a one-form on with values in (in fact, in values in ) This leads us to a more general subject of natural operations on tangent valued-forms.

Let therefore, for now, be any differentiable manifold, and let us consider the space of tangent valued forms on Let be the graded algebra of ordinary differential forms on Then the (graded) space of tangent-valued forms can be written as

In the following we will use the capital indices to refer to local charts of

The elements of are simply vector fields on The elements of are tangent-valued one-forms. If is such a form, then assigns to each tangent vector another tangent vector In coordinates it is represented as In general, an element of is represented by antisymmetric in indices or

In the following it will be convenient to introduce the following notation:

Notation

We will write

where and

Operations on differential forms

Frölicher-Nijenhuis (FN) bracket will assign to any two tangent valued forms another form

We will see (in the following posts) that the curvature of a connection can be simply expressed in terms of the FN bracket of the connection form with itself. Also Bianchi identities for the curvature will follow immediately from this definition and from the properties of the FN bracket. But first let us recall the three fundamental operations on differential forms These are: exterior derivative, Lie derivative, insertion. Exterior derivative maps to according to the formula

Given a vector field the insertion operator maps to according to the formula

Lie derivative maps into itself, the definition being

These three operations on number-valued differential forms have the following important properties (note: the commutators are graded commutators):

• If is a function on then

Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket

Frölicher-Nijenhuis bracket associates to each pair of tangent-valued forms on the third tangent-valued form. Because of its bilinearity it is enough to define it on simple tensors. For and for it is defined by the following formula:

In coordinates the Frölicher-Nijenhuis bracket is given by the following explicit expression:

If we want to write the sam formula in a more explicit form, then antisymmetrizations and combinatorial factors enter:

As an exercise let us compute where is the identity tangent-valued form (the natural soldering form), with coordinates . Thus we set The first term gives

The second and fourth terms vanishs because are constant.

The third is

It follows that – therefore commutes with every tangent valued form.

The most important properties of the FN bracket are the following ones

• – graded antisymmetry
• – Jacobi identity

Suppose now is a vector field. It can be also considered as a tangent-valued 0-form: We then find that

Therefore for vector fields the FN bracket reduces to an ordinary Lie derivative.

Another insight into the nature of the FN bracket comes from considering tangent-valued forms as operators on diferential forms. First of all, for any we can define a graded derivation by the formula:

Now I have a problem. In references [1] and [2] we have the following local formulas:

In our notation this would be:

But I am not able to reproduce this result. It seems to me that the factor is missing in front of the expression on the RHS. I will return to this enigma at the end of this note.

Remark. Notice that in these formulas we assume and not in

Then we define the Lie derivative of a differential form along a tangent-valued form by the formula

Explicitly:

or

Again it is instructive to calculate the action of and of this extended Lie derivative for Using the local formula from [1] or [2]

we obtain that for , that is for we have

But the identity map is not a graded derivative (of degree 0 in this case). On the other hand, from the formula involving vector fields I am getting

This looks good, because then

as it should be.

At this point I have to pause until this point is clarified. Perhaps I am missing something evident? I don’t know.

And here are the conventions concerning differential forms used in [1] and [2]:

References

[1] Peter W. Michor, Topics in Differential Geometry (see hxxp://www.mat.uniroma1.it/people/manetti/GeoDiff0809/dgbook.pdf )
[2] Ivan Kolar, Peter W. Michor, Jan Slovak, Natural Operations in Differentila Geometry (see hxxp://147.251.48.205/pub/muni.cz/EMIS/monographs/KSM/kmsbookh.ps.gz )
[3] Andreas Kriegl, Peter W. Michor, The Convenient Setting for Global Analysis, Ch. 33.18

## 3 thoughts on “Notes on Ehresmann’s connections -Part 2, Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket”

1. Bjab says:

Brakuje otwierającego nawiasu kwadratowego [ w szóstej important properties.
Brakuje zamykającego nawiasu kwadratowego ] w Jacobi identity.

2. Aristoteles says:

Fale grawitacyjne “istnieją” tylko w “liniowych przybliżeniach” [ tzw grawito_elektromagnetyzm, a ostatnio:
DBI gravity
Carlos Herdeiro, Shinji Hirano, Yuki Sato
(Submitted on 4 Oct 2011)
n-DBI gravity is a gravitational theory introduced in arXiv:1109.1468 [hep-th], motivated by Dirac-Born-Infeld type conformal scalar theory and designed to yield non-eternal inflation spontaneously. It contains a foliation structure provided by an everywhere time-like vector field n, which couples to the gravitational sector of the theory, but decouples in the small curvature limit. We show that any solution of Einstein gravity with a particular curvature property is a solution of n-DBI gravity. Amongst them is a class of geometries isometric to Reissner-Nordstrom-(Anti) de Sitter black hole, which is obtained within the spherically symmetric solutions of n-DBI gravity minimally coupled to the Maxwell field. These solutions have, however, two distinct features from their Einstein gravity counterparts: 1) the cosmological constant appears as an integration constant and can be positive, negative or vanishing, making it a variable quantity of the theory; 2) there is a non-uniqueness of solutions with the same total mass, charge and effective cosmological constant. Such inequivalent solutions cannot be mapped to each other by a foliation preserving diffeomorphism. Physically they are distinguished by the expansion and shear of the congruence tangent to n

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