In Deriving invariant hyperbolic Riemannian metric on the half-plane we have calculated the line element for the SL(2,R) invariant hyperbolic geometry on the upper half-plane:
Using this formula we can easily calculate the length of any segment of any curve. If is a parametric equation of the curve, then and so
In this last formula we have used the fact that in the upper half-plane we have
From the studies of geometry of surfaces and its generalization developed mainly by Riemann we know that the formula for the line element allows us not only to find the length, but also the angles.
It allows us to calculate scalar products of tangent vectors. Let us rewrite Eq. (1) in the form:
using the symmetric (i.e. ) “Riemannian metric” matrix
Thus, from Eq. (1), we have and . Or
In general, if and are two tangent vectors at then their scalar product is given by a general formula
The numerator is exactly the same as for the Euclidean scalar product. It has the consequence that the angles in the hyperbolic upper half-plane geometry are the same as in the Euclidean geometry. That it is so follow from the definitions. Angles in any Riemannian geometry are defined the same way as in the Euclidean geometry. If are two tangent vectors at then the angle between them is defined through the formula:
where and are their norms. If we use the scalar product given by Eq. (6), then the denominator in cancels out with the product of denominators is the norms. The end result is
Therefore, when we look at the picture like the one obtained in the last post:
all hyperbolic geometry angles between various lines at any particular joining point are the same as the perceived ones by our eyes ones – contrary to the sizes, where SL(2,R) invariant geometry and Euclidean geometry we are used to are different.
Whenever we have two metrics, and that differ a scalar factor we say that they are conformally related, or conformal to each other. In our case the metric in Eq. (4) is proportional to the identity matrix, our geometry is conformally Euclidean.
In the next note we will start calculating “straight lines”, or “geodesics” of our geometry. Some of them are almost evident candidates: vertical lines, perpendicular to the real line. But what about the other ones?
Our geometry is a toy geometry, as simple as possible. The group S(1,1) (or SL(2,R) ) is too simple. But one step further there is SU(2,2) – which became the basis for the “chronometric cosmology” developed by the late mathematician Irving Ezra Segal.